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    Observe, research, and interpret celestial and astronomical phenomena to increase basic knowledge and apply such information to practical problems.

    Analyze research data to determine its significance, using computers. Calculate orbits, and determine sizes, shapes, brightness, and motions of different celestial bodies. Collaborate with other astronomers to carry out research projects. Develop theories based on personal observations, or on observations and theories of other astronomers. Measure radio, infrared, gamma, and x-ray emissions from extraterrestrial sources. Present research findings at scientific conferences, and in papers written for scientific journals. Study celestial phenomena, using a variety of ground-based and space-borne telescopes and scientific instruments. Develop and modify astronomy-related programs for public presentation. Develop instrumentation and software for astronomical observation and analysis. Direct the operations of a planetarium. Raise funds for scientific research. Teach astronomy or astrophysics.

    Physics -- Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, their interrelationships, and applications to understanding fluid, material, and atmospheric dynamics, and mechanical, electrical, atomic and sub- atomic structures and processes. Mathematics -- Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.

    Mathematics -- Using mathematics to solve problems. Active Learning -- Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making. Critical Thinking -- Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems. Reading Comprehension -- Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents. Technology Design -- Generating or adapting equipment and technology to serve user needs. Equipment Selection -- Determining the kind of tools and equipment needed to do a job. Complex Problem Solving -- Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions. Writing -- Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience. Operations Analysis -- Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design.

    Mathematical Reasoning -- The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem. Inductive Reasoning -- The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events). Written Comprehension -- The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing. Deductive Reasoning -- The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense. Number Facility -- The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly. Written Expression -- The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand. Depth Perception -- The ability to judge which of several objects is closer or farther away from you, or to judge the distance between you and an object. Night Vision -- The ability to see under low light conditions. Far Vision -- The ability to see details at a distance. Near Vision -- The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).

    Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events -- Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events. Analyzing Data or Information -- Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts. Processing Information -- Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data. Getting Information -- Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources. Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings -- Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems. Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others -- Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used. Making Decisions and Solving Problems -- Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems. Controlling Machines and Processes -- Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles). Documenting/Recording Information -- Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form. Drafting, Laying Out, and Specifying Technical Devices, Parts, and Equipment -- Providing documentation, detailed instructions, drawings, or specifications to tell others about how devices, parts, equipment, or structures are to be fabricated, constructed, assembled, modified, maintained, or used.